Scientific Name(s): Spinacia oleracea L. Family: Chenopodiaceae

Common Name(s): Spinach


Many of the reported actions of spinach are related to its antioxidant properties. It may play a role in the prevention of cancer, cardiovascular disease, age-related macular degeneration, and the degeneration of the immune and neurological systems.


There is no clinical evidence to support a specific therapeutic dosage of spinach. As a food, spinach has US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status.


Contraindications have not been identified.


GRAS when used as food. Avoid dosages above those found in food because safety and efficacy are unproven.


Bioavailability of vitamin K from spinach is limited. While a simple meal containing spinach can result in a statistically significant reduction in the international normalized ratio (INR), the decrease is not likely to be clinically important. Absorption of magnesium, calcium, and zinc, but not nonheme iron, may be decreased by concurrent consumption of oxalates in spinach.

Adverse Reactions

Allergic reactions to spinach are rare. Gout may be precipitated in predisposed individuals because of the purine content. Consumption of spinach in infants younger than 4 months is not recommended because of the potential for reduced calcium absorption. Contamination with Escherichia coli has resulted in outbreaks of food-borne illness.


Research reveals little or no information regarding toxicology with the use of spinach.


The Chenopodiaceae family consists of 100 species of evergreen or semievergreen annuals, perennials, and shrubs. Other members of this group include beet and chard. In temperate climates, spinach reaches edible maturity quickly (37 to 45 days) and thrives best during the cool, moist seasons of the year. There are a number of varieties of spinach, all of which have large, dark-green leaves on upright plants. The leaves are the most frequently used part of spinach. ,


Spinach contains a number of antioxidants, including carotenoids, polyphenols, , and flavonoids (quercetin). The carotenoids are composed of 2 main classes, carotenes (beta-carotene) and xanthophylls (lutein). Glycolipids (sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol) are found in the chloroplast membrane. Spinach is regarded as a valuable dietary source of vitamin A, nonheme iron, folate, and lutein. Studies show much intrinsic variation in the bioavailability of these substances and variations caused by cooking methods. , , , , Spinach also contains oxalates and nitrates that may have negative effects. , , ,

Uses and Pharmacology

Activity of spinach has mostly been attributed to its antioxidant mechanisms. , , , Although consumption of spinach increases the levels of plasma lutein, nonsignificant changes in plasma beta-carotene, retinol, and the metabolite retinoic acid have been noted, while the antioxidant capacity of plasma has not been shown to increase. ,


Several epidemiological studies suggest an association between spinach consumption and the inhibition of cancer. , , , , , In vitro experiments and clinical studies evaluating the potential role of spinach and/or spinach extracts in cancer are limited. ,

Animal data

An antioxidant extract derived from spinach leaves reduced the multiplicity of papillomas in a mouse model ( P < 0.01). This same extract has been used in several experiments demonstrating a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on human prostate cancer cell proliferation. , , , Certain fractions of spinach extracts exert a suppressive effect on gastric cancer cell cycle proliferation. , , Spinach glycoglycerolipids have been shown to inhibit angiogenesis in human cell lines and in mouse tumor models.

Clinical data

Tomatoes, carrots, and spinach powder given daily to healthy volunteers for a 2-week period suppressed DNA strand breaks. It has been proposed that these plant products exert their cancer-protective effect via a decrease in oxidative and other damage to human DNA.

Cardiovascular disease

Analysis of the landmark Framingham Heart Study showed that an increased consumption of fruits and vegetables, the dominant source of folate in the human diet, was associated with higher levels of plasma folate, lower levels of plasma homocysteine, and a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Spinach consumption can increase plasma folate concentration ; however, spinach is only one of many potential dietary factors.

CNS effects
Animal data

Studies in rats have demonstrated that spinach extracts are effective in preventing cognitive deficits and reversing age-related motor and cognitive CNS deficits. ,

An improvement in delayed eye-blink conditioning (an Alzheimer disease model) has been demonstrated in rats fed spinach. Mechanisms by which spinach might act are related to modulation of age-related increases in inflammatory response. ,

Clinical data

There are no clinical data regarding the use of spinach for neurological dysfunction.

Ophthalmic effects

Studies in the 1940s and 1950s showed that xanthophylls improved night vision and adaptation to dusk. Lutein and zeaxanthin, abundant in green leafy vegetables such as spinach, are highly concentrated in the macula of the eye and are believed to limit tissue damage by absorbing blue light.

Animal data

There are no animal data regarding the use of spinach for age-related macular degeneration.

Clinical data

Studies have shown that diets rich in lutein and zeaxanthin may lower the risk for age-related macular degeneration and could have a role in cataract prevention. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation and its chemical oxidation by free radicals is the suggested mechanism of action. , ,

Bone density

An epidemiological study among young Japanese women found an association between low bone mass and reduced daily intake of yellow and green vegetables.

Immune system effects

Spinach is a dietary source of the carotenoid antioxidants beta-carotene and lutein, and thus, is postulated to help maintain immune cell integrity by reducing reactive oxygen species.


Membrane proteins (thylakoids) from the leaves of spinach have been evaluated in rats and healthy adults for effect on satiety. In rats, hydrolysis of triacylglycerols suppressed food intake, and reductions in body weight gain have been observed. In adults, satiety hormones cholecystokinin and leptin were reduced and the hunger hormone ghrelin was reduced after a single meal enriched with thylakoids.


Spinach is being investigated as a plant-derived, edible vehicle for anthrax vaccine, as well as a vehicle for the HIV-1 Tat protein, a prospective vaccine candidate.


There is no clinical evidence to a support a specific therapeutic dosage of spinach. As a food, spinach has GRAS status; however, overconsumption may pose a potential risk because of the presence of nitrates in the vegetable.


GRAS when used as food. Avoid dosages above those found in food because safety and efficacy have not been established.


Warfarin interferes with the hepatic synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Fluctuations in vitamin K intake can cause changes in anticoagulant response. Because spinach has a high vitamin K content, it can decrease the INR in patients taking oral anticoagulants ; however, bioavailability of the vitamin K content is low. Studies in patients receiving warfarin with single meals of spinach resulted in a statistically significant, but not clinically important, reduction in the INR. , ,

Absorption of magnesium, calcium, and zinc may be decreased by concurrent consumption of oxalates. Decreases in magnesium absorption have been demonstrated in healthy adults, but this is likely to be offset by the magnesium content of spinach. No decrease in nonheme iron absorption by oxalates has been shown in experiments. , ,

Adverse Reactions

Allergic reactions to spinach are rare, with very few case reports in the literature. Immunoglobulin E-mediated allergy to spinach and sensitization to spinach powder have been reported. Crossreactivity to molds, mushrooms, and latex have been described, making it difficult to implicate spinach. , , , Additionally, spinach contains histamine, which can cause pseudoallergic reactions. Because uric acid is a product of purine catabolism and spinach contains moderate amounts of purines, dietary reduction of purine intake may be appropriate in individuals predisposed to gout. , Spinach is not recommended in infants younger than 4 months because the oxalate content could reduce calcium absorption. , , Methemoglobin formation is also possible through the plant's nitrate content. Spinach has been implicated in outbreaks of E. coli food poisoning, including the fall 2006 outbreak in the United States that resulted in approximately 100 hospitalizations and 3 deaths. Contamination may occur via organic fertilizers or irrigation water or in postharvesting processing and bagging. , ,


There is little or no information regarding toxicology with the use of whole spinach leaves. An antioxidant extract derived from spinach leaves was nonmutagenic. Toxicological studies performed on this extract in mice, rats, and rabbits showed no toxicity, adverse reactions, or abnormalities.


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