Endocervicitis - an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the cervical canal resulting from cervicalinjury during childbirth, abortion, diagnostic curettage and other intrauterine procedures. The inflammatory process is accompanied by mucopurulent or purulent discharge from the genital tract,pulling blunt abdominal pain, fever and general malaise.
Since many women suffer from uterine fibroids, I want to tell them how you can get rid of this trouble.
Treatment to be successful, we must completely abandon the canned pork, spicy and greasy, and limit salt intake to 2-3 grams per day.
Allergy sufferers should carefully read my article. I will not describe chemical interactions for a long time and detail, I'll just talk about the result.
If you do not have time to go to the doctor, and you have not learned enough of your body, then try to understand what's on your own.
For years, it's been thought that people living with HIV wouldn't be good candidates to receive a new kidney.
But a new study finds that these patients actually have better outcomes than those infected with hepatitis C, or patients infected with both viruses.
"These findings show that HIV patients are being unfairly perceived to have worse kidney transplant outcomes than non-infected groups, and as a result, they often have to wait the longest for transplants and there are fewer living donors," study author Dr. Deirdre Sawinski, of University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, said in a university news release.
Sawinski's team examined data from more than 124,000 adults who received kidney transplants between 1996 and 2013. The study found a three-year survival rate of 89 percent for those with HIV -- nearly the same as the 90 percent survival seen among uninfected patients.
However, survival rates were lower -- 84 percent -- for those with hepatitis C, and 73 percent for those infected with both HIV and hepatitis C, according to the study published online recently in the journal Kidney International.
"Our hope is that these study findings result in greater access to transplantation for HIV patients," said Sawinski, who is assistant professor in the renal, electrolyte and hypertension division at the university.
She also hopes the findings will spur "the kidney transplant community to focus on eradicating hepatitis C in transplant patients -- either pre-transplant or if that's not possible, immediately post-transplant -- to ensure better outcomes for these patients."
Currently, HIV patients must have an undetectable viral load to receive a kidney transplant, but the same requirement does not apply to hepatitis C patients, the researchers explained.
The study authors said that less than 25 percent of transplant centers in the United States offer kidney transplants to HIV patients. Nationwide, fewer kidney transplants are done in people with HIV than those with hepatitis C.
-- Robert Preidt
Exercise may be just what the doctor ordered if you have knee pain.
The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons suggests:
Start out exercising slowly, and over time build up the duration and intensity of your workout.
While some discomfort is OK, pain is not.
You should stop if you feel pain in your knee.
A little stiffness or soreness is OK, but significant pain the day after exercising probably means you've overdone it.
Talk to your doctor or physical therapist if you have questions about exercising with knee pain.
-- Diana Kohnle
Limiting the number of innings that young professional pitchers pitch doesn't reduce their risk of arm injuries, a new study says.
The study also found that gradually increasing the total number of innings pitched has no effect on the risk of future injury.
"Conventional wisdom among coaches and managers is that restricting innings for young starting pitchers, and slowly increasing the number of innings pitched over several years, gives pitchers' tissues sufficient time to adapt to the workload of a major league season," said lead investigator Thomas Karakolis, of the University of Waterloo in Canada.
"But all our data shows that these strategies really make no difference in preventing injury," he added in a university news release.
The researchers analyzed data collected between 2002 and 2007 from pitchers younger than 25 who had pitched at least one-third of an inning in Major League Baseball.
A year-to-year increase of 30 innings pitched is often used as the limit for a young starting pitcher. But the researchers found no consistent link between injuries and the number of innings pitched or the rate of yearly increases in innings pitched.
"Injury is the result of workload exceeding the capacity of the body's tissues, so while counting innings is a tempting way to measure workload, it's actually a very flawed method," Karakolis said.
"If coaches are looking for ways to prevent injury, simply limiting the number of innings is not the answer. They have to look at how hard a pitcher's body is working during each inning, each pitch," he added.
The study suggests that teams need to invest in "biomechanical assessments for each pitcher" to try to prevent injuries. And, coaches and trainers should consider strength and conditioning programs that focus on soft tissue, the researchers said, adding that younger pitchers have a better chance at tissue adaption than older pitchers.
Injuries have been a big problem for Major League Baseball in recent years, with more than 25 percent of pitchers winding up on the disabled list, the study authors said.
The study was published online recently in the Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness.
-- Robert Preidt
Marine animals are getting bigger, a new study shows.
Over the past 542 million years, the average size of sea creatures has increased by 150 times, the Stanford University researchers report.
"That's the size difference between a sea urchin that is about 2 inches long versus one that is nearly a foot long," Noel Heim, a postdoctoral researcher at Stanford's School of Earth, Energy & Environmental Sciences, said in a university news release.
"This may not seem like a lot, but it represents a big jump."
Using computer simulations, photographs and detailed illustrations of fossils, the team was able to calculate and analyze body size and volume for more than 17,000 sea animals dating back millions of years. The researchers determined the pattern of increasing body size among sea creatures was driven by natural selection -- not by chance.
The increase in body size that has occurred is not due to all animals steadily getting bigger, the researchers explained. Essentially, every marine animal hasn't grown in size, but over millions of years the ocean filled up with a greater variety of larger animals.
"That's also something we didn't know before," study co-author Jonathan Payne, a paleobiologist at Stanford's School of Earth, Energy & Environmental Sciences, said in the news release. "For reasons that we don't completely understand, the classes with large body size appear to be the ones that over time have become differentially more diverse."
Heim added that, "It's really a story of the survival and diversification of big things relative to small things."
The study was published recently in the journal Science.
The team said their findings could support future investigations into evolutionary trends involving other traits.
"The discovery that body size often does evolve in a directional way makes it at least worth asking whether we're going to find directionality in other traits if we measure them carefully and systematically," Payne said.
-- Mary Elizabeth Dallas
Seeing actors drink alcohol in movies seems to increase the likelihood that teens will drink and have alcohol-related problems, a new study suggests.
The findings fit with a growing consensus of evidence that teens are more likely to engage in various risky behaviors that occur in the films and TV shows they watch, said study author Andrea Waylen, a senior lecturer in social sciences at the University of Bristol in England.
But, this study doesn't prove that watching films with alcohol in them causes teens to drink, only that it's a possible factor.
One expert pointed out another potential explanation for the findings.
"Kids who are more likely to drink or are already drinking may seek out more films with drinking in them," said Dr. Victor Strasburger, an emeritus professor of pediatrics at the University of New Mexico School of Medicine.
Yet, he added, a number of long-term studies conducted by a co-author of the current study "show that seeing episodes of drinking in the movies may be the leading cause of teenagers beginning to drink, or smoke if they see episodes of smoking."
For the latest study, the researchers surveyed just over 5,000 English 15-year-olds to find out which of 50 movies they had seen. The 50 films had been randomly selected from popular, recent films, and the researchers had measured how many minutes in each film showed alcohol use.
The teens were categorized according to whether they had seen a small amount of alcohol use in movies (less than 28 minutes), a lot (at least 64 minutes) or somewhere in between. They also answered questions about whether they drank alcohol and how often.
Eighty-six percent of the teens said they had tried alcohol. Nearly half said they participated in binge drinking. And just over 40 percent said they'd had an alcohol-related problem, the researchers found.
Adjustments were made for other factors that might affect teen drinking, such as socioeconomic status, mental health conditions, parental drinking habits and family characteristics.
After considering those factors, the researchers found that teens exposed to the most drinking in movies were still 20 percent more likely to have tried alcohol than teens with the lowest exposure.
Those who watched the most alcohol use in films also were almost twice as likely to binge drink and more than twice as likely to drink weekly than those who had seen the least alcohol use. Teens who saw a lot of drinking in movies were also twice as likely to have alcohol-related problems.
The findings were published online April 13 in the journal Pediatrics.
The study authors suggested that movie ratings take alcohol use into consideration.
Strasburger would take that a step further by including a pediatrician and child psychologist on the Motion Picture Association of America board that determines ratings.
"The ratings should be content-based, not age-based as they are now," said Strasburger, who believes preteens are likely the most susceptible to being influenced by what they watch. "Studies around the year 2000 found that there was actually a surprising amount of drinking and smoking in G- and PG-rated movies."
Waylen added that, "If movies aren't rated for alcohol content so that parents are prevented from restricting viewing, we do need to be concerned about the movies and other media that kids are watching, regardless of their age."
In addition, parents should talk with their children about what they see, or watch the films with their kids.
"The important thing is that parents communicate with their kids on a regular basis, that they know the sort of movies they are watching, who they're watching them with and, perhaps most importantly, that they [parents] are aware of the content of the movies," Waylen said.
Short people may be more likely to have heart disease, and that increased risk could be linked to the genetics that also determine height, a British-led research team suggests.
A person's risk of heart disease increases about 13.5 percent for every 2.
5 inches of difference in height, the scientists said. That means a 5-foot-tall person has an average 32 percent higher risk of heart disease than a person who's 5-foot 6-inches tall, according to the researchers.
An in-depth genetic analysis of more than 18,000 people revealed a number of genes linked to human growth and development that likely play a role in the increased risk for heart disease.
"We found that people who carry those genetic variants that lower your height and make you shorter are more likely to develop coronary heart disease," said Dr. Nilesh Samani, a professor of cardiology and head of the department of cardiovascular sciences at the University of Leicester in England.
However, while the current study was able to show an association between genetics, height and a higher risk of heart disease, it wasn't able to prove a cause-and-effect relationship.
The study is published online April 8 in the The New England Journal of Medicine.
Heart disease occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the muscles of the heart become narrowed, as a result of fatty plaques that build up along the artery walls. If a blood clot forms within a plaque-narrowed section of artery, it can block blood flow to the heart muscle and cause a heart attack.
But researchers found that only a third of the increased genetic risk they observed comes from genes related to levels of "bad" LDL cholesterol and triglycerides in the body.
That means most of the heart disease risk related to shortness of stature is tied to other genetic factors that are as yet poorly understood, said Dr. Ronald Krauss, director of atherosclerosis research at Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute in California.
"The genetic data is sufficiently strong to argue there's something else going on," Krauss said. "What that might be is still conjectural."
Some genes identified by researchers could influence heart disease risk by affecting the growth of cells in the artery walls and the heart, Krauss and Samani said.
"These variants could affect the arterial walls in a way that makes them more likely to develop atherosclerosis," the medical term for narrowed or hardened arteries, Samani said.
Other genes appear to be linked to inflammation in the body, which is another risk factor for heart disease, Krauss said.
It's been known for more than 60 years that people who are shorter run a higher risk of heart disease, but this is the first study to suggest that genetics are a primary cause, Samani said.
Up to now, doctors have been unable to rule out other possible explanations, he said. For example, one theory has held that people grow up shorter due to poor nutrition, which also predisposes them to heart disease.
To better understand the heart risks associated with short stature, researchers pooled data from two recent international research efforts into the human genome, one of which explored the genetics of height and the other the genetics of heart disease, said study co-author Dr. Christopher O'Donnell, associate director of the Framingham Heart Study for the U.S. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
The research team first tested the association between a change in height and risk of coronary artery disease by examining 180 different height-associated genetic variants in nearly 200,000 people, and concluded there's a relative 13.5 percent increase in heart disease risk for every 2.5 inches shaved off a person's height.
They then drilled down to very specific individual genetic data from a smaller pool of more than 18,000 people. They identified a number of pathways by which genes related to height could also influence heart disease risk.
Interestingly, the effect of height on heart disease risk may be gender-specific. "We found a clear-cut effect in men, but we didn't see a clear-cut effect in women," Samani said, adding that significantly fewer women in the study could have affected the statistics.
Samani, Krauss and O'Donnell all said that these results are preliminary, and don't indicate that short people need to do anything other than what's already recommended for everyone to lower heart disease risk, such as eat a healthy diet and get regular exercise.
"We have an abundance of evidence that every person should look at their modifiable risk factors and speak with their doctors," O'Donnell said. "It's not clear what one can do about their height, but it's very clear there are a lot of behaviors one can change to improve their health overall."
Smartphones and other personal electronic devices could be used to detect earthquakes and alert people in poorer countries about the danger, researchers say.
Such early warning systems could be created using the devices' global positioning system (GPS) receivers, which can detect ground movement caused by a large earthquake.
By using crowd-sourced observations from participating users' devices, earthquakes could be detected and analyzed, and earthquake warnings could be sent back to users, according to the study.
While not as accurate as scientific-grade equipment, this approach could be used in countries unable to afford much more expensive earthquake early warning systems, the researchers explained.
"Crowd-sourced alerting means that the community will benefit by data generated from the community," study lead author Sarah Minson, a geophysicist at the U.S. Geological Survey, said in an agency news release.
Only a few earthquake-prone regions in the world have earthquake early warning systems, the study authors said in the news release.
"Most of the world does not receive earthquake warnings mainly due to the cost of building the necessary scientific monitoring networks," project leader and USGS geophysicist Benjamin Brooks said.
The researchers used data from a 2011 earthquake in Japan to create a simulation to test the feasibility of the crowd-sourced earthquake early warning system. They found that it would be effective even if only a small percentage of people in an affected area contributed data from their devices.
For example, the system would work if data was gathered from fewer than 5,000 people in a large city.
However, the crowd-sourced system is only effective for earthquakes of magnitude 7 or larger, not for smaller, though possibly damaging earthquakes, the investigators found.
The findings were published April 10 in the journal Science Advances.
-- Robert Preidt
Sperm may hold clues about whether a man's children will be at increased risk for autism, a small study suggests.
Autism spectrum disorder is a group of developmental problems that can cause significant social, communication and behavioral challenges, according to the U.
S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
The CDC estimates that one in 68 U.S. children has an autism spectrum disorder. Many experts believe that autism is usually inherited, but there is no genetic test to assess autism risk, the Johns Hopkins University researchers said in a Hopkins news release.
"We wondered if we could learn what happens before someone [develops] autism," said Dr. Andrew Feinberg, a professor of molecular medicine at the Hopkins School of Medicine in Baltimore.
Daniele Fallin, co-lead investigator on the study and director of Hopkins' Wendy Klag Center for Autism and Developmental Disabilities, added that if genetic modifications are being passed from fathers to their children, it might be possible to see them in sperm.
The researchers analyzed DNA in the sperm of 44 fathers of children with early signs of an autism spectrum disorder. The focus was not on genes themselves, but on "epigenetic tags" that help regulate genes' activity.
The team identified 193 sites where the presence or absence of an epigenetic tag was related to autism. Many of the genes near these sites were involved in brain development.
Four of the 10 sites most strongly linked to autism were located near genes associated with Prader-Willi syndrome, a genetic disorder that causes some of the same behavioral symptoms as autism, the study authors said.
In addition, several of the altered epigenetic patterns were found in the brains of people with autism, which supports the theory that they might be related to autism, the researchers pointed out.
The study was published online April 15 in the International Journal of Epidemiology.
The Hopkins team plans to pursue these preliminary findings with a study of more families and to examine the occupations and environmental exposures of the fathers.
-- Robert Preidt
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